CHAPTER ONE

                      1.0 INTRODUCTION:

A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, usually with less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are in general, called artificial sweeteners. Artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are found in a variety of food and beverages marketed as sugar free or diet including soft drinks, chewing gum, jellies, baked goods, candy, fruit juice and ice-cream and yogurt. [Whitney 2011]

People may not all like the same kind of baked treats but one thing we all agree on is that baked treats should be sweets usually, sugar is used to lend sweetness to foods but would cake taste just as good if the baker used a sugar substitutes instead of sugar? Many people prefer not to use sugar often due to health reasons and instead depend on sugar substitutes to sweeten their foods. But are sugar substitutes the same as sugar? What exactly are the differences between sugar and sugar substitutes?

Sugar also known as sucrose comes from plants like sugar cane and sugar beets and is a carbohydrate. Sugar adds bulk to cakes, cookies and all kinds of treats; sugar also causes browning and caramelizing in foods when it is

heated as when cookies turn golden brown in the oven sugar is a natural substance, something that our bodies can use for energy.

Sugar substitutes come in three categories; artificial sweeteners, sugar alcohols and natural sweeteners. Artificialsweeteners are attractive because they add almost no calories to foods and are sometimes a part of weight loss programs. Also they donot increase blood sugar levels which mean that diabetics can use them. Many artificial sweeteners like sucralose were discovered by accident in the laboratory. In 1976, a scientist in England was studying different compounds made from sugar. The scientist asked a student to test the compounds but instead the student tested them. Another category of sugar substitutes is sugar alcohols. Sugar alcohols are not alcoholic beverages they do not contain ethanol which is found in alcoholic beverages. Sugar alcohols like sugar have calories and energy but not asmuch as sugar. Sugar alcohols like artificial sweeteners do not contribute to tooth decay and affect blood sugar levels slowly so diabetics can use them. Although sugar alcohols like xylitol, sorbitol and erythritol are manufactured products the sources are often natural.

The last category of sugar substitutes is called natural substitutes. The categories include maple syrup, agave nectar and honey. These substances

are absorbed by our digestive system and contain calories and nutrients that our bodies can use. [Michelle 2002]

The chart lists some popular sugar substitutes and how they‟re commonly categorized:

 Artificial sweeteners Acesulfame potassium (sunett,sweet one) S ugar alcohols


Novel sweeteners

Stevia extracts (pure via, truvia)

Natural sweeteners

Agave nectar

Aspartame (Equal, Nutrasweet) Hydrogenated starch hydrolysate. Tegatose (Naturlose) Date sugar
Neotame Isomalt Trehalose Fruitjuice concentrate
Saccharin (sugartwin, sweet “N” low Lactitol Honey
Sucralose (splenda) Maltitol Maple syrup
Mannitol Molasses



AIM: To create an alternative to sugar by replicating the sweetnessfound in natural sugar.


To determine how the sweetness of sugar substitutes compare to the sweetness of sugar. In this research sugar and sugar substitutes will be tested and the sweetness will be compare in relation to sugar.

To compare the availability and affordability of the active components in the artificial sweetener and sugar

To know the components of this artificial sweetener and what makes them taste sweet


Artificial sweetener mimicking the taste of sugar will be a better alternative to people who are suffering from diabetics. Unlike sugar, artificial sweeteners generally don‟t raise blood sugar levels because they are not carbohydrates.

Bio Chem

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