MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR ACHIEVING ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS. (A CASE STUDY OF STAR PAPER MILL LTD, ABA)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
Manpower planning and development is the first and the
most important function of management. The essence of manpower planning and development involves a critical analysis of the supply, demand, surplus, shortage and utilization of human resources. It is important to note that manpower planning is often taken as the most important resources of an organization because through it, other resources (material and financial) are harnessed to meet the need of man.
The economic development of a country depends on the quality and quantity of its resources, the state of technology and efficient deployment of resources in both production and consumption process.
Most organizations today is facing problems because they did not plan for their workforce neither do they have any systematic human resources management programs that consider organizational goals.
Planning is the first and most important function of management. The essence is to prepare for and predict future events. Planning goes beyond attempting to attain stated organizational objectives. It involves the
development of strategy and procedures required for effective realization of the entire plan.
One of the major problems confronting management in any organization is the most effective way of matching people with jobs. The process by which management attempt to provide for the human resources or manpower to accomplish its task is called “manpower planning”.
The concept of manpower planning has been given different definition by different authors. Malthus and Jackson (1992) see manpower planning as the process of analyzing and identifying the need for the availability of human resources so that the organization can meet its human resources objectives.
Griffin (1997) sees human resources planning as a plan which involves accessing trends, forecasting the supply, demand for labour and the development of appropriate strategy for addressing any differences.
Ehegbunna (1992), sees manpower planning as having the right person in the right number, in the right place and at the right time.
Olutola (1986), when manpower planning is mentioned, it generally refers to the projection of future requirement for a given number of people with specific skill to meet the demand of various sector of the economy.
Ogunniyi (1992), in handling manpower planning said that it is a concept that involves critical analysis of supply, demand, surplus, shortage, wastage, and utilization of human resources.
Manpower planning is necessary in all organization because it is required for recruitment. Without it, it would be difficult to know the number of personnel’s required for recruitment.
Manpower planning and development helps measurement to determine:
(a) Number of employees
(b) The level of experience each must possess
(c) Their salary scale
(d) The best way to utilize them in an activity which practice increase skills.
Star Paper Mill Ltd was incorporated as a paper connoting company in 1997. Now, the company operates thru (3) factories which includes stationary plant at Umungasi (Aba); the recycling and conversion plant at Owerrinta and the Ibadan conversion plant. It also has liaison offices in Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Kano, Suleja and Onitsha.
The premier plant located at Aba, produces school exercise books of different types and a wide range of stationary. It has an installed capacity of
25,000 metric tones per annum which translates into 38 million envelops of various sizes and colours. Other products include typing sheets, duplication papers and fullscap files. The cement percentage utilization is about 75 percent.
The second factory was commissioned in 1984 as a waste paper recycling plant, with an installed capacity of 10 metric tones of tissues paper in jumbo reels per day. By 1992 a new paper machine was installed with the capacity of 15 metric tones of tissues paper per day, presently, the Owerrinta plant has a total capacity of 60 metric tones per day. This paper utilizes waste paper and paper off cuts as its main sources of raw materials and that constitutes 90% both in volume and in naira value of the plant requirement locally sourced. In this plant also exists a toilet rolls production line which utilizes the jumbo reels as inputs and produces 140, 000,000 units of toilet rolls, paper napkins per year. This in effect positions the company as the largest producer of toilet rolls and tissue products in the country, with marketing outlets throughout the entire country. This plant just commissioned a new product line sanitary towel for ladies with the brand name of “every woman” becomes a new addition to the stable.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
This project is carried out to examine the impact of manpower planning and development in relation to the achievement of organizational objectives. Despite the emphasis being laid on effective and efficient manpower planning and development, an organization still faces more problems in manpower planning and development.
Among the problems are as follows;
(i) There is increase of waste of materials, time and money in the organization.
(ii) There is unnecessary breakdown in organizational operations.
(iii) There are no clear-cut policies for the guidance and co-operations of all personnel who are accountable for day to day executive decision.
(iv) There are no interpretations of what each segment of the organization must do so that every function will be integrated with all related activities and this resulted to gaps and duplications of work.
(v) There is no established administrative control in order to assume the attainment of desired results in conformity with approved objective, policies and programmes
(vi) There is no clarity results desired, criteria and schedules so that every manager in the system will know what is expected of the organization as a whole and his department.
(vii) There is inter-departmental conflict and this resulted to staff alienation.
(viii) There is confusion, misunderstanding and conflict about roles and responsibilities of people employed in the organization.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
The objectives of this study include among other things;
(i) To ascertain how previous manpower plan are used to prepare new manpower plan for the future.
(ii) To ascertain the organization’s manpower planning and development resources.
(iii) To verify adequate information needed in the organization in the manpower planning and development time and skill.
(iv) To map out enough manpower planning and development time and skill that will help managers gather sufficient information that will help them in the organization.
(v) To ascertain whether adequate financial resources are provided for the manpower planners.
(vi) Using manpower planning and development to arrest the problems of the firms.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTONS:
(i) Is adequate time frame needed in preparations of organizational manpower planning and development?
(ii) Does manpower planning and development require adequate financial resources?
(iii) Does previous manpower planning and development serve as basis in determining the future manpower planning and development?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
(i) Adequate time frame is needed in preparing effective manpower planning and development plan.
(ii) Adequate finance is required in preparing and implementing effective manpower planning and development.
(iii) Previous manpower planning and development serve as good basis in determining the future manpower planning and development.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
It is believed that this study when completed will be
beneficial to the followings;
Firstly, the study will be of immense benefit to the company under, study – Star Paper Mill Ltd, Aba. It will help them know that they have to consult the previous manpower planning and development plan before determining whether to prepare new manpower planning and development.
Secondly, the study shall be of great help to managers in gathering information that will help them while planning for the manpower and its development.
Thirdly, this study will serve as an aid academically to widen the knowledge of the researcher in the field of business and it will serve as a reference source by future researchers.
Lastly, this study will also help the government in making their manpower planning and development budget estimates on yearly bases.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
It will not be economically wise to regard the entire firms in Aba as the case study of the project. Consequently, this study was limited to Star Paper Mill Ltd, Aba Branch of the Company. In the conviction that Aba as a main branch truly represents the firm operationally and administratively. Thus, the information obtained was based on the answers received from questionnaires with the staff.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
The are problems encountered by the researcher in the course of generating data for this project and they are;
(i) Secrecy of Respondents: The high rate of secrecy manifested by respondents in releasing of information as concerns the operations of the organizations contributed to the limitations of this study.
(ii) Ignorance: Ignorance manifested it self in this study, it was most disappointing that even graduates who occupied responsible posts were among the respondents that needed a lot of persuasions before they agree to complete the questionnaires, others needed a lot of persuasions before they agree to complete the questionnaires. Some misplaced theirs which the researcher had to call several times at some for the collection of the completed and had to be rejected.
(iii) Bureaucratic Red Tape: The researcher was made to call several times at the offices of the personnel manager and company secretary for the necessary permission. It was not an easy task for the researcher to set what was really needed for the work. But with the help of some staff of the company, the researcher was able to obtain the necessary information.
(iv) Finance: Finance constraint was another problem faced by the researcher in the course of the study. As a result of the poor state of the economy, costs of almost everything especially transport had increased drastically. This made the researcher encounter heavy financial difficulties as a result of insufficient fund to meet the high cost of stationary and printing of study involved.
(v) Time: The time frame within which this work was allowed was quite limited for an intensive as well as extensive work to be accomplished and so forms a constraint on the work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS:
MANAGEMENT: This is a social process entailing responsibilities for the effective and economical manpower and development and regulation of the operations of an enterprise, in fulfillment of a given purpose or task, such as responsibility involving;
(a) Judgment and decision in determining plans and development of data procedures to assist, control of performance and progress against manpower planning and development.
(b) The guidance, integration, motivation and supervision of the personnel composing the enterprise and carrying out it’s operations.
DECISION MAKING: This is the manpower planning and
development process which involves selecting the best course of action for accomplishing stated objectives from the possible alternatives.
POLICIES: A policy is a guide to the actions and decisions of
PROCEDURES: A series of related steps that are to be followed
in an established order to achieve a given purpose.
RULE: A statement that either prescribes or prohibits action by
specifying what an individual may or may not do in a specific situation.
PRODUCTIVITY: Productivity is a measure of an enterprise ability to produce more goods and services with less input (people, materials, money and information) and thus less cost.