THE INFLUENCE OF STRIKE ACTION ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY. (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA)
Strike generally could be defined as the refusal to work by employees of an establishment to protest for certain inadequacies in their conditions of service.
Strike is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. Strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances.
In most countries, they were quickly made illegal as factory owners hand political power than workers. Most Western countries partially legalized striking in the 19th or ea 20th centuries.
Strikes are sometimes used to put pressure on government to change policies. It will also be noted that strike is not peculiar to universities alone but to other organizations or pressure groups such as:
- Nigeria labour Congress (NLC)
- Nigeria Bar Association (NBA)
- Nigeria Union of Journalist (NUJ)
- Nigeria Medical Association (NMA)
Higher Institutions that are liable to embank on strike actions include:-
- The Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUNU)
- The National Association of Nigeria Students (NANS)
- The Academic Staff Union of Polytechnics (ASUP)
- The Academic Staff Union of College of Education etc
When strike occurs in an organization, workers suffer most and in this way, the Nigeria working system has been thoroughly destroyed.
There is no way to remedy this situation apart from the individual employees concerned to stand up and demand for their right.
Although, strike may create temporary difficulties for workers in the sense that it will stop their work and without their work, they won`t earn a living. this situation of our country Nigeria will not be fully developed because they will be back of or less production because 12
of the strike action management has not put its priorities right. it is in protest of these misplaced priorities and inadequacies that these management and Nigeria union of worker. ie the Nigeria labour congress (NLC).
In most cases, the employers and the employees would have explored all avenues for dialogue and strike becomes the last option for the settlement of disputes.
Before the introduction of strike among Nigeria worker in the years 1963 by PA Imodu, the authorities have always worked in peace and harmony with their privilege to work as an employee in any organization because they always had great expectations both the senior and the junior staff worked happily together as members of the same community and guided by a sense of mission to promote and preserve their working performance.
Today, the issue of strike in our country has been so rampant that the government will have to do something urgently so as not to Jeopardize the interest of the employees on how to improve their performance and productivity in their place of work. But before the emergence of union, there had been spontaneous strike and protests against poor conditions of work in several African countries.
In the strike that took place in sierra-leane in 1874. In Senegal, rail road workers had frequently engaged in sporadic strikes against the dehumanizing conditions of work.
In practice, however, it has been difficult to separate strike from other forms of expression of industrial dispute as employers lock out workers and workers them-selves embank on strike action. it is or useful to view both phenomena as part and parcel of the conflict situation, not as opposite. rarely does a strike occur over a single issue for an obvious cause may be linked with several others issues that are not immediately apparent to the observation that have caused dis-satisfaction because solutions to them have been long in coming. The actual occurrence of a strike depends on several factors including prevailing circumstance. This also goes to show that few strikes occur spontaneously especially as there is no way of guaranteeing that a strike action instead of other forms of strike action would be decided upon by worker involved. 14
1.2 BRIFY HISTORY OF CASE STUDY
The University of Nigeria, commonly referred to UNN, is a Federal University located in Nuskka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Founded in 1955 and formally opened on 7th October 1960, the University of Nigeria has four campuses-Nuskka, Enugu and Ituku-Ozalla-Located in Enugu State and one in Aba, Abia State Nigeria.
The University of Nigeria was the first full fledges indigenous and first autonomous educational system. it is the first land-grant university in African and one of the five elite universities in the country. The university has 15 faculties and 102 academic departments. The university offers 211 undergraduate programmers and 82 postgraduate programmers.
The University celebrated its 50th anniversary in October 2010.
A law to establish a university in the Eastern Region of Nigeria was passed on may 18, 1955 while that date marks the formal beginning of the history of the university of Nigeria, the enactment of this legislation by several Nigeria leaders, and inspired particularly by then premier of the Eastern Region, Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe. One of the first steps taken by Eastern Nigeria Government 15
towards the implementation of its commitment was an invitation to both the United States of American and the United Kingdom to send advisers to help in the planning of physical structures and educational aspects of the proposed university.
Under the joint auspices of the inter overseas and the international Education Administration (now the United States Agency for international the Development). J.W. Cook, Vice Chancellor of the University of Exacter, Dr. John A Hannah, President of Michigan state university and Dr. Glen L. Taggart, Dean of International programmers at the same university came to Nigeria in 1958. The team surveyed the site at Nsukka, and extensively investigated a great variety of factors pertinent to the establishment of a new university.
The result of their efforts were contained in a while paper issued by the Eastern Nigeria Government on 30 November 1958. They had recommended “that the development of the University of Nigeria based upon the concept of service to problems and needs of Nigeria is a desirable project and one that should receive support from any source which could help to make it a sound Endeavour”.
They further recommended that a provisional council be established to “draw upon the technical and consultative
Resource available throughout the world to help in planning the institution” the provisional council authorized by the Eastern Nigeria legislature, was appointed by the Governor in council in April 1959, and given necessary financial and administrative powers to build a sound university. it reflected the spirit of international co-operation which has given birth to the institution. it consisted of Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe. Dr. T. Olawale Elias and Dr. Okechukw Ikejiani from the federation of Nigeria, J.S. Fulton from the United Kingdom, Dr. Marguertu Cartwright and Dr. Eldon Lee Jonson from the United State of American.
The university was formally opened on 7th October 1960, as the Celebrations in the Eastern Region. her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Kent, represent HER Majesty Queen Elizabeth 11 at the Nigeria independence celebrations performed the opening ceremonies and laid the foundation stone of one of the university`s early buildings.
Classes began on 17 October 1960 with an enrollment off 220 students and 13 members of the academic staff other opening convocation addresses were delivered by the chairman of the provisional council, Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe, the first president of the federation of Nigeria and by Dr. John A. Hannah, president of Michigan State University, U.S.A.
The university was fully autonomous, with the power to grant its own degree technology speaking, therefore, it become the first fully-fledge university in Nigeria since Ibadan was still at that time a university. It also became the first university established by a Nigeria Regional Government.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Influence of strike action on employee`s performance and productivity poses serious problems both on management and lecturer and those problems sought to be solved by the end of this research study and they include, the causes of strike action, how workers performance and productivity could be increased, ways in 18
which strike actions could be eradicated and dose strike action demoralize workers or motivate them.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The issue of strike by organization has been so rampant that the government will have to do something urgently about this situation, so as not Jeopardize the existence of the organization.
Therefore, the objective of this study includes:-
- To find out whether strike influence the employee performance in an organization.
- To find out whether delay in payment employees salaries is the major cause of strike in an organization.
- To find out how government reach towards the cause of strike in an organization.
- To find out how the organization, employers and employees respond either positively or negatively to strikes.
- To prefer practical solution to the problems.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This empirical study will be important to be researcher since it is a partial requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science in Industrial Relations and personnel Management. Also this research work will be the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. it will also be beneficial to other universities within Nigeria and potential and future researchers on the issue of strike action in employee`s productivity and performance.
The study will identify how to make management have a re-think or reconsider their plea. How strike action is carried out so as to increase the welfare or pay of workers and how employed embark on strike so as to gain grounds in the organization.
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study focuses on the influence of strike action on employee‟s performance and productivity, the cause of strike action and the necessary measure to reduce or avoid strike action. In this scope we will be able to search and find out how the strike action affect the performance and productively of workers in university of Nigeria Nsukka.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research was also limited by time and financial constraints, as the researcher also affected by restriction of movement by the institution authority. The researcher did not also make use of so many books that are meant to be the library because there are no enough books related to any topic in the library.
1.8 REASEACH QUESTIONS
This research questions is based on the influence of strike action on employee‟s performance and productivity.
- To what extent dose strike action influence employee performance and productivity in an organization.
- To what extend does delay on the payment of workers salaries cause strike in am organization.
- To what extend does the management employer and employee respond to strike action.
- To what extend does the government respond to the demands strike actions
- What is the practical solution to the problem of strikes in the University of Nigeria Nsukka?
1.9 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
- There is significant influence of strike action on employee performance
Productivity and in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka
- Strike action erupts as a result of delay in payment of workers salaries and other entitlement.
- There is significant Influence of strike action on the reactions of government.
1.10 THORITICAL FRAMWORK
Strike generally could be defined as the refusal to work by employee of an establishment to protect for certain inadequacies in their conditions of services. Strike usually takes place in response to employee‟s grievance. We have different theories in strike and they are unitary perspectives, classical perspective, integrationist perspective and pluralistic perspective all those are involutes in the strike theories but the pluralistic perspective it say “if one however 22
accepts the views of social writer and the idea of a pluralistic approach to work organization, then conflict among competing subgroups will be seen as an inherent feature of structure of the organization. The pluralistic manager is more likely to accept that conflict in organization requires careful handling and attempts to reconcile rival interest
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
STRIKE: An organized refusal to work by employees of a company.
INFLUENCE: The power to produce effects, especially Indirectly or through an intermediary, the condition of being affected power to change a person`s way of life.
JOB SATISFACTION: Remuneration is a reward. It is better payment and fringe benefits. The chief characteristics of workers were that economic self interest. Michael white (1980) discovered that remuneration (money) is a good and an incentive. Remuneration is a source of satisfaction, is a standard companion. so remuneration is a source of material goods stimulus to greater production.