IMPACT OF NIGERIAN TELEVISION AUTHORITY ENUGU ON SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF EMENE COMMUNITY IN ENUGU STATE
1:1 Background of the study
Broadcasting is a global phenomenon, and it is an essential aspect of any nation’s social and cultural life. Its significance cannot be over emphasized; combining audio, vision and motion, the broadcast media’s effectiveness in communicating information with speed and accuracy to heterogeneous audiences has been proven over the years. Moreover, the broadcast media have helped the individual to share ideas not only within his immediate environment but also beyond its social milieu, so that by means of broadcasting the individuals can partake in ideas and experiences that can enrich his life and help him live in a complex dynamic and human society.
Hitherto what passed as broadcasting in Nigeria were the re-diffusion services of the British Empire Then, the post and telegraph department was the sole authority responsible for distribution of programmes to subscribers in Lagos, Kano, and Ibadan. Under this system; programmes were distributed via landlines from the studios to the listening boxes for which the subscribers paid a token free (Nwuneli 1985). However, the emergence of the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) witnessed a major departure from the earlier situation as the rediffusion stations were transformed into fully operational radio stations. This development marked the entry into service of the first broadcasting corporation of its kind in any British Colonial territory in African. By its character the NBC was a non- profitable organisation with the express responsibility of carrying on the service as a means of disseminating information, education and entertaining provided that such programme contents were not contrary to the avowed national interests of the country.
For television, Chief Obafemi Awolowo, then premier of Western region of Nigeria, established the first television in Nigeria and indeed African in 1959. The birth of the Western
Nigerian Television (WNTV) has been described as accidental in so far as chief Awolowo embarked on it due to his inability to use the services of the Federal Radio Station to reply to the broadcast of then Governor General Macpherson over the constitutional matters of 1953 (Obata, 1994). It would be recalled that Chief Awolowo was denied use of the Federal radio even when the commission’s has an obligation to give objectives and impartial news and views to its listeners.
Thus, angered by this and other related developments and taking into recognition the 1954 constitutional provision in which broadcasting ceased to be in the Federal exclusive list, chief Awolowo established in partnership with overseas Rediffusion company limited of the United Kingdom, the western Nigerian broadcasting corporation which by 1960 has introduced radio broadcast over the whole region (uche, 1989). Following the success of the of the western region effort the other two regions in Nigerian then, the north and the East upon realizing the power and influence of radio and television went on to establish their own broadcast station.
In 1960, the eastern regional government set up the Eastern Nigerian Television station in Enugu shortly after in 1962, the northern Nigerian regional government and British television company- Grenada electrical company established a television station as an arm of the broadcasting company of northern Nigeria (BCNN)in Kaduna.
However, in Nigeria for several decades following the inception of broadcasting in 1957 (Obazele, 1996) the industry led a sheltered life shielded from the winds of free market forces as successive regimes ensured that the sector remained an exclusive monopoly of the central government. Even the 1979 constitutional provision for the establishment of private electronic media had much earlier experienced liberalization; the broadcast media remained as earlier stated an exclusive preserve of government.
It could be argued that perhaps Government’s initial monopoly of the industry may not be unconnected with the seeming potential of broadcasting as a tool for social change and engineering which as such ought not to be left in the hands of just anyone. Again it is the private entrepreneurs that emphasize on the orientation towards exclusive commercialism rather than consideration for national interest this may be another reason for government grip on the industry over the years.
But, the much expected deregulation materialized in 1992, when the Babangida regime promulgated decrees which liberalized the industry and also established the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC). This decree (38) of August 24 (1992) empowered the NBC to regulate the entire broadcast industry, both public and private. This singular act by the Babangida’s military presidency eclipsed over the 50 years of sole government domination of the sector in Nigeria. Interestingly the action by government heralded a proliferation of private electronic media as entrepreneurs and investors cashed in on the window of opportunity to invest so that at present in Nigeria there are so many private runned radio and television stations operating in an atmosphere of competition with the hitherto existing this background that this investigation is based on.
Essentially, it examines the impact of the liberalization of the broadcast industry in Nigeria, to ascertain the positive and negative developments that have arisen since the deregulation.
Brief History of Enugu
Enugu state is a mainland state in south-eastern Nigeria, its capital is Enugu, from which the state created in 1991 from old Anambra state derives its name. The main cities in the state are Enugu, Agbani, Awgu, Udi, Oji-River and Nsukka.
The name of the state was derived from its capital city, Enugu, The word “Enugu” (from Enu ugwu) means “the top of the hill”. The first European settlers arrived in the area in 1909 led by the British mining engineer Albert Kist son. In his quest for silver, he discovered coal in Udi Ridge
Enugu state is one of the states in the eastern part of Nigeria. The state shares borders with Abia state and Imo state to the south, Ebonyi state to the east, Benue state to the northeast, Kogi to the northwest and Anambra state to the west, it have 17 local government area.
The state Government and the local governments are two levels of government in Enugu state and in all the state s in Nigeria. Sullivan Chime is the current executive governor. He was elected on April 2007 and was sworn into office on May 29, 2007.
Economically, the state is predominantly rural and agrarian, with a substantial proportion of its working population engaged in farming, although trading (18.8%) and service (12.9%) are also important. Electricity supply is relatively stable in Enugu and its Environs.
Every community in Enugu state has at least one Elementary school and one secondary school funded and run by state government. Nigeria first indigenous university, university of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) is located in Enugu state. The state also hosts the Enugu state university of science and Technology (ESUT); Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) e.t.c Enugu state is over 3.3 million people.
1:2 Statement of Problem
The purpose of this study is to know, to what extent social development programmes succeeded in achieving their set objectives; in social development and motivation setting for the viewer in order to achieve its set objectives and goals. Social development programme is like mobilization techniques. It informs, persuades, educate and enlighten. It can change the viewers beliefs, attitude and behaviour, but for this social development programme to be effective on the viewers the media producer must carry out audience research.
1:3 Objective of the Study
This study has been arranged under the following objective:
- To ascertain the impact of television in making social change in Emene community.
- To know whether television (NTA) Enugu, really enlighten the viewer on social development.
- To know whether NTA Enugu Network centre package programmes that will gear toward development.
1:4 Research Questions
- To what extent does Nigerian television Authority impact greatly on social development in Emene?
- To what extent do Emene community accept NTA Enugu as a vital tool for development?
- How does NTA Enugu Network centre package programmes that will gear toward development?
1:5 Research Hypotheses
H0: Nigerian Television Authority does not impact greatly on social development in Emene community.
H1: Nigerian television authority impacts greatly on social development in Emene community.
1:6 Scope of the Study
The study is limited to impact on social habits of Emene community. The researcher would have loved to study the whole community in Nigeria, but due to time factors and financial constraint the researcher is compelled to limit the study to only Emene community in Enugu. The scope of the study does not encroach into the period where the researcher has no knowledge of. It covers the time frame when television took it in Nigeria, but the actual scope of the study should lie on how people (Emene community) accept social developmental programmes.
1:7 Significance of the Study
The researcher is of the opinion that many people might not know the importance of television development programmes for social development, how these social development programmes have helped in changing the Emene community. Therefore, the researcher wants to use this medium to enlighten the television viewer to know the need for television and its powerful effect, more especially to the Emene community in Enugu to know the development programmes of Nigeria television Authority Enugu (NTA) Enugu state.
1:8 Operational Definitions of Significant Terms
In the course of this study the following terms are defined based on my research topic which is Television, Development, Viewer, Perception and Community, These following terms are defined operationally.
Is a device used in entertaining, informing, motivating, persuading and educate
In this study viewers will be used as member of the public who watch television programmes including the selected social development ones.
The process by which viewers become aware of the change through the sense of sight and hearing or it will be used to mean the ability by which television viewers becomes aware of the communication message.
This is the process/ ability for man or an organisation to achieve its set objectives and goals.
Community is a group of people, living together in one geographical area, bound by one goal and belief.