1.1. Background of the Study
Global warming has become the most pertinent and most significant contemporary issue in the entire globe. Today, the world is currently under the threat of global warming. Its challenging nature can never be over emphasized neither can the world‟s vulnerability to its effect be argued. Experts contend that the various manifestations of climate change occur in many ways than one. These include average global temperatures, which have increased by 0.8 centigrade since 1990; the last decade was the warmest year on record in the southern hemisphere.
Effects of climate change are numerous including declining agricultural productivity, insecure harvest, rising product prices, reduced productivity of farm labour, increasing 3
tendency of feeding on spoiled food items, increasing risk of dehydration, reducing milk yield in dairy farms and these short comings have far- reaching negative effects on human health and existence.
Global warming could be referred to an increase in the average temperature of the earth‟s atmosphere especially a sustained increase sufficient to cause climate change. It can also be caused by gaseous discharges from industries, indiscriminate and open burning of waste, bush burning, burning of fossil fuels, use of defoliants, crude oil spillage, gas flaring, indoor cooking, emissions from generators, mining activities, exploitation of energy for domestic(use of charcoal, fuel, wood, pole). Major air pollutants include Cox, Nox, particulates H2s, CFCs, Hcfcs, Dixons and furans. As a result of these emissions from generators, mining activities, the ozone layer is gradually losing its potency and this has led to an increase heat of radiations from the sun on the earth, which is called global warming. Other results of these emissions apart from dangerous changes in weather patterns including flooding, which has become unprecedented in history, persistent rise in sea level, alarming rate of desertification, gully erosion, crop failure and a number of other negative impacts.
These are the modern day plagues threatening the very existence of humanity unless Government and the people address them squarely urgently institute drastic and urgent measures, except that all humans will eventually become vagabonds. In a keynote address on the ministry of environment‟s 2nd summit on climate change.
Fashola states that:
“There will be threat to global food supply and even the legal order as we know it today about immigration control and border securities may give way to anxious, displaced and angry millions of refugees who will be in an uncontrollable race in search of safety and survival.”
Climate change model projection summarized I the latest intergovernmental panel of climate change (IPCC) reports indicates that global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.40 centigrade (2.0- 11.50f) during the 21st century. However, warming is expected to continue beyond year 2100 even if emissions stop; because of the large heat capacity of the ocean and long life time of carbon- dioxide (Co2) in the atmosphere.
Today, most National Governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gases.
Radio help to enhance people‟s general knowledge by providing them with information from all over the world. It is also the fastest means of passing information. Its portability cannot be over emphasized. Radio serves as the best means of speedy spread of news about important incidents or events taking place. What has happened in the remotest corner of the world can reach within minutes. Hence, there is need for this research to find out the impact of Radio Nigeria Enugu awareness campaign on the people of Emene Community.
The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in pale climate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate, but the calculations were disputed. Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from volcanism to solar variation.
In the 1960‟s the warming effect of carbon dioxide gas became increasingly convincing, although some scientists also pointed out that human activities, in the form of atmospheric aerosols (example “pollution”), could have cooling effects as well. During the 1970‟s, scientist opinion increasingly favored the warming viewpoint. By the 1990s, as a result of improving fidelity of computer models and observational work confirming the Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, a consensus position formed: greenhouse gases were deeply involved in most climate change and human emissions were bringing serious global warming.
Since 1990s, scientific research on climate change has included multiple disciplines and has expanded, significantly increasing our understanding of casual relations, links with historic data and ability to numerically model climate change. The most recent work has been summarized in the assessment reports by the intergovernmental panel on the climate change.
Regional changes, antiquity through 19th century from ancient times, people suspected that the climate of a region could change over the course of centuries. For example, Theophrastus, a pupil of Aristotle, told how the draining of marshes had made a particular locality more susceptible to freezing, and he speculated that land became warmer when the clearing of forests exposed them to sunlight. Renaissance and later scholars saw that deforestation, irrigation, and grazing had altered the lands around the Mediterranean since ancient times; they thought it plausible that these human interventions had affected the local weather.
The most striking change came in the 18th and 19th centuries, obvious within a single lifetime. The conversion of eastern North America from forest to crop lands. By the early 19th century many believed the transformation was altering the region‟s climate probably for the better. When sodbusters took over the Great Plains they were told that “rain follows the plough”. Not everyone agreed. Some experts reported that deforestation not only caused rainwater to run off rapidly in useless floods, but reduced rainfall itself. European professors, alert to any proof that their Nations were wiser than others, claimed that the Orientals of the Ancient near east had heedlessly converted their once lush lands into impoverished deserts.
Meanwhile, national weather agencies had begun to compile masses of reliable observations of temperature, rainfall and the like. When the figures were analyzed they showed many rises and dips, but no steady long term change. By the end of the 19th century, scientific opinion had turned decisively against any belief in a human influence on climate. And whatever the regional effects, few imagined that humans could affect the climate of the planet as a whole.
Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria
The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria was originally founded in 1933 by the British colonial Government, named the diffusion service; it allowed the public to hear the British Broadcasting Corporation‟s foreign radio service broadcasts in certain public locations over loudspeakers.
In April 1950, the RDS became the Nigerian Broadcasting service and introduced radio stations in Lagos, Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadan and Kano. This service was re-organized into the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC) on April 1, 1957 by Act of Parliament. Its mission was to provide, as a public service, independent and impartial broadcasting services.
By 1962 the NBC had expanded its broadcast stations into Sokoto, Maiduguri, Ilorin, Zaria, Jos and Katsina in the North; Port Harcourt, Calabar and Onitsha in the East, and Abeokuta, Warri, and Ijebu- Ode in the west. Each of these stations was considered a subsidiary station of a regional station. The subsidiary stations broadcast local interest programmes during part of the day, and then relayed programming from their regional station during the rest of the broadcast day. National programs were broadcast from two shortwave transmitters and one medium wave transmitter located in Sogunie, near Lagos.
In the late 1960, the federal parliament amended the NBC ordinance to allow the sale of commercial advertisements. The first adverts ran on October 31, 1961 and were broadcast from Lagos. By 1962 regional and provincial broadcasters began selling adverts to local businesses. The goal of allowing radio advertisements was to help provide additional funding to NBC stations beyond that received from the Government.
The federal parliament approved the creation of Voice of Nigeria (VON) external shortwave service in 1961. Broadcasts began on January 1, 1961 from Lagos State. Its initial operations were limited to two hours a day to West Africa, but by 1963 VON had expanded both its coverage and transmission times with the addition of five additional transmitters.
In April 1961, with financial assistance from the ford foundation and technical assistance from the British Broadcasting Corporation, NBC began National school broadcasting service in April 1961. The NBC schools unit broadcast lessons in various school subjects for primary and secondary schools as well as special programs for teachers training college. The schools unit was based in Ibadan. The NBC and the Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) were merged in 1978 to become the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN). 8
Medium wave transmitters previously owned by the NBC were transferred to the individual state Government where the transmitters were located. At the same time, the State transferred short wave transmitters to the FRCN.
IN 1996, VON installed three high power transmitters at its Ikorodu transmitter site, allowing worldwide transmissions for the first time.
FRCN medium wave service, Radio Nigeria, has 25 stations located throughout the country and together with voice of Nigeria considers itself to have the largest Radio network in Africa.
In 2007, FRCN began introducing FM transmitters in some locations and plan to begin upgrading and modernizing its shortwave and medium wave transmitters in the coming year.
1.2. Statement of the Research Problem
For many year now, series of human activities such as industrial and other economic activities of man on the surface of the earth have been going on ignorantly without putting into consideration the adverse or negative effect of all these activities on the planet in particular and the environment in general.
Today, these human activities on earth or environment have degenerated to what is now called global warming which has now posed a serious challenge to the survival of man in the whole world.
The problems therefore are as follows; 9
To determine the extent Emene community has been exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report.
To know the level of acceptance of these reports by Emene community.
To determine the level of application of the Radio Nigeria weather reports by Emene community.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are;
- To identify how Radio Nigeria Enugu has been able to influence people‟s attitude towards information on weather change.
- To identify whether Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has played any role in changing the perception of the people of Emene community on information on Global warming.
- To understand the economic advantages of Radio Nigeria Enugu‟s awareness campaign on global warming on the people of Emene community.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were used by the researcher as a guide.
- To what extent has Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report influence the attitude of the people of Emene community towards environmental management?
- To what extent has Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report been able to change people‟s perception on information on Global warming?
- What is the level of awareness on global warming created by Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Hi: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has influence on the attitude of Emene residence on their environmental management.
Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has no influence on the attitude of Emene residence on their environmental management.
H2: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has been able to change people‟s perception on information on global warming.
Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has not been able to change people‟s perception on information on global warming.
H3: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has created high level of awareness on global warming.
Ho: Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report has not created high level of awareness on global warming.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This research is focused on the challenges and possibility of creating awareness of the dangers which human activities pose on the environment using Radio Nigeria Enugu as a study Area. The study is limited to Emene community in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State. That is those who are exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu news programme from January to June 2014.
1.7 Significance of the Study 11
This study is justified by the need to highlight the importance of Radio involvement in the campaign on global warming. It would be a reference material to students and other researchers who carryout studies in the same field.
The study will provide information on how to control global warming.
The result of the study will sensitize media managers on the importance of weather report.
The study will help to determine the rate at which the programme changes perception of Emene community about global warming.
It highlights how Radio Nigeria Enugu awareness campaign on global warming encourages a forestation among Emene community.
- 8 Operational Definition of Terms
Impact: The feelings of the people of Emene community after been exposed to Radio Nigeria Enugu weather report from January to June 2014.
Radio: Electromagnetic wave carrying information from Radio Nigeria Enugu to the people of Emene community.
Awareness: The level of information about global warming by the people of Emene community.
Campaign: Series of Radio Nigeria Enugu weather reports exposed before Emene community.
Global warming: The rise in temperature of Emene Community from 37c to 39c from January to June 2014.